Agronomical vs horticultural crops

It is easy to relate the two because some of the techniques employed are used interchangeably in both sciences, for instance in the cultivation of crops which is an agricultural process, many horticulture methods are employed.

Agronomical vs horticultural crops

However, it is also challenged by stagnant yield growth, increasingly high input, mounting environmental pol- lution and pressing sustainability of development.

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In comparison, old agriculture of years ago, based on the traditional multi-genotype landraces and low-input cultivation, prevailed thousands of years and still exists now in subsistence farming in marginal areas in spite of its low productiv- ity.

Crop multi-genotype breeding, which combines the advantages of both old and modern agri- culture at the high level of productivity, will give us a promising strategy to break the predicament of modern agriculture.

The concept, necessity, principle, technical tactics and characteristics of crop multi-genotype breeding are first elucidated in detail here. Two successful cases of applica- tion in rice and cotton are presented. In cotton, a multi-genotype hybrid variety Jing-Mi 1 re- vealed superiority in seeded cotton and lint yields over the check variety in regional trial.

Multi- genotype variety could be maintained and recover the genetic diversity in production system. In their progenies of the MAGIC lines, most of them could be transmitted to the multi-genotype varie- ties, implying that the genetic diversity of agro-ecosystem could be effectively restored by crop multi-genotype varieties.

We believe crop multi-genotype breeding will make a substantial con- tribution to restoring genetic diversity of agro-ecosystem, preventing the exacerbation of vulner- able environment and promoting the sustainable development of agriculture. We call for ever-in- creasing efforts to develop and apply the crop multi-genotype breeding in agriculture.

Introduction Crop varieties are a major element and resource Agronomical vs horticultural crops the carrier of genetic diversity in agroecosystem. However, it is also challenged by stagnant yield growth, increasingly high input, mounting environmental pollution and pressing sustainability of development.

Modern crop single-genotype breeding, which utilizes the principle of genetic segregation and recombination and has become overwhelmingly dominated up to now, attempts to create best super varieties through combining thousands of desired genes. As a matter of fact, no such super variety has been produced yet and the life span of current varieties has nevertheless been increasingly shortened.

Furthermore, it is challenged by the sustainability of development.

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In comparison, old agriculture of years ago, based on the traditional multi-genotype heterozygous landraces and low-input cultivation, prevailed thousands of years and still exists now in subsistence farming in marginal areas in spite of its low productivity.

Crop poly- genotype breeding, which combines the advantages of both old and modern agriculture at the high level of productivity, will give us a promising strategy to break the predicament of modern agriculture.

We have ex- plored and developed this new breeding technology in the past twenty years and now it is getting mature.

The concept, necessity, principle, technical tactics and characteristics of crop multi-genotype breeding are first elu- cidated in detail here.

Two successful cases of application in rice and cotton are presented. We believe this technology will make a substantial contribution to restoring genetic diversity of agroecosystem, preventing the exacerbation of vulnerable environment and promoting the sustainable development of agriculture.

It will bring about a series of major transformation in agricultural production system and break the limitation of Green Rev- olution. It will add new values and elements beyond Green revolution.

It will become a new engine for the next Green revolution and is thereby known to everybody globally. Genetic diversity, together with biodiversity is currently one of hot topics including new energies and mate- rials around the world.

Up to now, major efforts have been made to save endangered species for conservation of species diversity in natural ecosystem, or have been concentrated on preserving diversified germplasm resources in crop plants or have been focused on revealing and characterizing the genetic diversity within those resources.

Little work has been done about the species or genetic diversity in agroecosystems and genetic diversity within a specific variety has been nearly neglected.

With the development of modern industrial civilization, it is getting more difficult to conserve the biodiversity and retain genetic diversity in natural ecological habitats. Are there any other approaches by which we can realize such a goal?

As we known, agroecosystem takes up a major por- tion of global terrestrial areas. Thus it can be hopefully the largest carrier of genetic diversity for plants. If so, what changes have taken place in this agroecosystem during last century?

Decline in Diversity of Cultivated Plant Species There are aboutplant species which have been identified in the globe. Among them, around spe- cies were once cultivated and about were domesticated by human beings. Be- sides, major cereal crops comprise only 15 plant species [1].

Drastic Reduction in the Number of Varieties for Cultivated Crop Plants The number of varieties in every crop plant has been reduced drastically in agriculture during the 20th century, leading to rapid decline in genetic diversity.

In South Africa, nearly all local sorghum varieties were replaced by imported varieties from US. Similar cases were reported for apple in France and muskmelon in Spain [2].

According to a report accredited by the Academy of Sciences of USA, the genetic diversity of agriculture has become increasingly fragile for most crop plants cultivated in the USA.

China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world. It is also one of original places of rice diversity.Under the oilseed crops, toria and niger and pulses crops–arhar and gram were demonstrated during to enhance the productivity of different crops. Some technologies were demonstrated viz., varietal, timely sowing, integrated nutrient management, production technology, integrated pest and disease management and line sowing.

The crops produced by agriculture include fruits, vegetables, poultry and beans. In horticulture, the primary concern is how to cultivate the crops and the study of the techniques used.

Agronomical vs horticultural crops

Horticulture is done on a much smaller scale than agriculture. From the different divisions or branches of horticulture, the horticultural crops consist of the olericultural or vegetable crops, pomological or fruit crops and edible nuts, floricultural and other ornamental crops, and nursery crops.

In addition, the aromatic crops and the medicinal crops are generally included. From the different divisions or branches of horticulture, the horticultural crops consist of the olericultural or vegetable crops, pomological or fruit crops and edible nuts, floricultural and other ornamental crops, and nursery crops.

In addition, the aromatic crops and the medicinal crops are generally included. 2 Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran چکیده The physiological and biochemical responses of three ecotypes of Artemisia absinthium L.

from Iran were evaluated under salinity conditions. Study of morphological characteristics of Iranian red-fleshed apples vs. some Iranian landraces and Horticultural Science, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Agronomical, phenological and morphological traits were measured.

Stress indices were calculated to determine tolerant genotypes.

Difference Between Agronomy and Horticulture | Agronomy vs Horticulture