The Role of Motivation in Organizational Behavior The Role of Motivation in Organizational Behavior Motivation and Organizational Theory Though we have discussed motivation extensively earlier, the role of the HR department and the role of the organizational culture in motivating employees have not been discussed at length. As organizational theory states, employees need to be motivated to actualize their potential and there are several ways of enabling them and empowering them to do so.
This includes a thorough study and analysis of both human and material resources in the organization. In looking at the human resources, there is needed to look at the behavioral patterns of employees at work. This will help an organization to be able to manage its human resources effectively.
One of the elements to look at in the analysis of employee behaviour is motivation. Motivation is a key element in organizational behavior because employee needs to be motivated in order to exhibit an attitude or behavior that will help achieve the goals and objectives of the organization and thereby improve performance over time.
This paper will attempt to examine motivation, its definition, theories and how it improves employee performance as a determinant for achieving organizational performance.
It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat.
Motivation is the purpose or psychological cause of an action Schater as cited in Wikipedia. This is the process by which a person wants and chooses to act in a particular way Maund, According to Slocum and Hellriegelmotivation represents the forces acting on or within a person that cause the person to behave in a specific, goal-directed manner.
It influences the level of performance, the efficiency achieved and the time spent on an activity. Researchers often contrast intrinsic motivation with extrinsic motivation, which is motivation governed by reinforcement contingencies.
Traditionally, educators consider intrinsic motivation to be more desirable and to result in better learning outcomes than extrinsic motivation Deci, Many modern-day authors have also defined the concept of motivation.
As all cited in the work of James For this paper, motivation is operationally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals. As we can conceive from the above definitions, they all refer to or talk about a stimuli that trigger or spur the motivational process.
Various researches as have been conducted show that internal motivations are preferred in making a person to work towards the achievement of goals. However, external motivations still contribute to drive a person towards the achievement of organizational goals. Therefore we look at two sources of motivation below: Intrinsic motivation does not mean, however that a person will not seek to rewards; it is just that external rewards are not enough to keep such a person motivated.
People who are intrinsically motivated work on task because they find them enjoyable. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure. As Deci et al. Furthermore in the work of Deci and Richardintrinsic motivation refers to motivation that source comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards or punishments.
The motivation comes from the pleasure one can get from the task itself, completing the task or just working on a task. Terry defines intrinsic motivation as motivation that stems directly from the act itself, rather than something beyond it.
Extrinsic motivation is related to tangible rewards such as salary and fringe benefits, security, promotion, contract service, the work environment and conditions of work.
According to Nnajiextrinsic motivation, sometimes financial, are the tangible motivations given to employees by managers, such as pay raises, bonuses, and benefits.Expectancy Theory postulates that individuals behave in a specific manner because they get motivated by the desirable outcome of such behaviour.
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